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References
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

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Garlic references

  • Atkin M, Laight D, and Cummings MH. The effects of garlic extract upon endothelial function, vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in adults with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk. A pilot double blind randomized placebo controlled trial. J Diabetes Complications. 2016 May-Jun;30(4):723-7.
  • Ban JO, Oh JH, Kim TM et al. Anti-inflammatory and arthritic effects of thiacremonone, a novel sulfurcompound isolated from garlic via inhibition of NF-kB. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009; 11(5): R145. Epub 2009 Sep 30. 2009.
  • Bradley JM, Organ CL, and Lefer DJ. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection. J Nutr. 2016 Feb;146(2):403S-409S.
  • Benavides GA, Squadrito GL, Mills RW et al. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the vasoactivity of garlic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 13;104(46):17977-82. 2007.
  • Cavagnaro PF, Camargo A, Galmarini CR, Simon PW. Effect of cooking on garlic (Allium sativum L.) antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinates content. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Feb 21;55(4):1280-8. Epub 2007 Jan 27. 2007. PMID:17256959.
  • Charron CS, Dawson HD, Albaugh GP, et al. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans. J Nutr. 2015 Nov;145(11):2448-55.
  • Chiavarini M, Minelli L, and Fabiani R. Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Feb;19(2):308-17.
  • Ehnert S, Braun KJ, Buchholz A, et al. Diallyl-disulphide is the effective ingredient of garlic oil that protects primary human osteoblasts from damage due to cigarette smoke. Food Chemistry, Volume 132, Issue 2, 15 May 2012, Pages 724-729.
  • Galeone C, Turati F, Zhang ZF, et al. Relation of allium vegetables intake with head and neck cancers: evidence from the INHANCE consortium. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Sep;59(9):1641-50.
  • Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Levi F, Negri E, Franceschi S, Talamini R, Giacosa A, La Vecchia C. Onion and garlic use and human cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1027-32. 2006. PMID:17093154.
  • Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Talamini R et al. Onion and garlic intake and the odds of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urology. 2007 Oct;70(4):672-6. 2007.
  • Galeone C, Tavani A, Pelucchi C, et al. Allium vegetable intake and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Italy. Eur J Nutr. 2009 Mar;48(2):120-3. 2009.
  • Gautam S, Platel K and Srinivasan K. Higher bioaccessibility of iron and zinc from food grains in the presence of garlic and onion. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jul 28;58(14):8426-9. 2010.
  • Ghalambor A and Pipelzadeh MH. Clinical study on the efficacy of orally administered crushed fresh garlic in controlling Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in burn patients with varying burn degrees. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 2009; 2(1):7-13. 2009.
  • Guercio V, Turati F, La Vecchia C, et al. Allium vegetables and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Jan;60(1):212-22.
  • Hou L, Liu Y, and Zhang Y. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2015;24(4):575-582.
  • Hou LQ, Liu YH, and Zhang YY. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015;24(4):575-82.
  • Jeong YY, Ryu JH, Shin JH, et al. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts. Molecules. 2016 Mar 30;21(4):430.
  • Jung ES, Park SH, Choi EK, et al. Reduction of blood lipid parameters by a 12-wk supplementation of aged black garlic: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrition, Volume 30, Issue 9, September 2014, Pages 1034-1039.
  • Kaschula CH, Hunter R, and Parker MI. Garlic-derived anticancer agents: structure and biological activity of ajoene. Biofactors. 2010 Jan;36(1):78-85. 2010.
  • Keophiphath M, Priem F, Jacquemond-Collet I et al. 1,2-Vinyldithiin from Garlic Inhibits Differentiation and Inflammation of Human Preadipocytes. The Journal of Nutrition. Bethesda: Nov 2009. Vol. 139, Iss. 11; p. 2055-2060. 2009.
  • Lazarevic K, Nagorni A, Rancic N et al. Dietary factors and gastric cancer risk: hospital-based case control study. J Buon. 2010 Jan-Mar;15(1):89-93. 2010.
  • Lee YM, Gweon OC, Seo YJ et al. Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Res Pract. 2009 Summer;3(2):156-61. 2009.
  • Lopez-Jaramillo P. The Role of Adiponectin in Cardiometabolic Diseases: Effects of Nutritional Interventions. J Nutr. 2016 Feb;146(2):422S-426S.
  • Martins N, Petropoulos S, and Ferreira ICFR. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review. Food Chemistry, Volume 211, 15 November 2016, Pages 41-50.
  • Melino S, Sabelli R and Paci M. Allyl sulfur compounds and cellular detoxification system: effects and perspectives in cancer therapy. Amino Acids. 2010 Mar 6. [Epub ahead of print]. 2010.
  • Mukherjee S, Lekli I, Goswami S et al. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 August 12; 57(15): 7137-7144. doi: 10.1021/jf901301w. 2009.
  • Nahdi A, Hammami I, Brasse-Lagnel C et al. Influence of garlic or its main active component diallyl disulfide on iron bioavailability and toxicity. Nutr Res. 2010 Feb;30(2):85-95. . 2010.
  • Nemeth K and Piskula MK. Food content, processing, absorption and metabolism of onion flavonoids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(4):397-409. 2007.
  • Nimni ME, Han B and Cordoba F. Are we getting enough sulfur in our diet?. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2007 Nov 6;4:24-36. 2007.
  • Prati P, Henrique CM, de Souza AS, et al. Evaluation of allicin stability in processed garlic of different cultivars. Food Sci. Technol (Campinas) vol.34 no.3 Campinas July/Sept. 2014.
  • Raghu E, Lu KH, and Sheeh LY. Recent Research Progress on Garlic as a Potential Anticarcinogenic Agent Against Major Digestive Cancers. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Volume 2, Issue 3, July—September 2012, Pages 192-201.
  • Reinhart KM, Talati R, White CM et al. The impact of garlic on lipid parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Res Rev. 2009 Jun;22(1):39-48. 2009.
  • Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP et al. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2008 Jun 16;8:13. 2008.
  • Rivlin RS. Can garlic reduce risk of cancer?. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 January; 89(1): 17-18. Published online 2008 December 3. 2009.
  • Salih BA, Abasiyanik FM. Does regular garlic intake affect the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in asymptomatic subjects?. Saudi Med J. Aug;24(8):842-5. 2003.
  • Shin HA, Cha YY, Park MS et al. Diallyl sulfide induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by mitochondrial signaling pathway. Oral Oncol. 2010 Apr;46(4):e15-8. 2010.
  • Siegel G, Michel F, Ploch M, Rodriguez M, Malmsten M. [Inhibition of arteriosclerotic plaque development by garlic]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2004 Nov;154(21-22):515-22. 2004. PMID:15638070.
  • Tilli CM, Stavast-Kooy AJ, Vuerstaek JD, Thissen MR, Krekels GA, Ramaekers FC, Neumann HA. The garlic-derived organosulfur component ajoene decreases basal cell carcinoma tumor size by inducing apoptosis. Arch Dermatol Res. Jul;295(3):117-23. 2003.
  • Vidyashankar S, Sambaiah K, and Srinivasan K. Effect of dietary garlic and onion on biliary proteins and lipid peroxidation which influence cholesterol nucleation in bile. Steroids, Volume 75, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages 272-281.
  • Wang Y, Zhang L, Moslehi R et al. Long-Term Garlic or Micronutrient Supplementation, but Not Anti-Helicobacter pylori Therapy, Increases Serum Folate or Glutathione Without Affecting Serum Vitamin B-12 or Homocysteine in a Rural Chine. J Nutr. 2009 January; 139(1): 106'112. 2009.
  • Wu WK, Panyod S, Ho CT, et al. Dietary allicin reduces transformation of L-carnitine to TMAO through impact on gut microbiota. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 15, May 2015, Pages 408-417.
  • Zaroudi M, Yazdani Charati J, Mehrabi S, et al. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Risk of Diabetes Type 2: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. Arch Iran Med. 2016 Mar;19(3):166-72.
  • Zhu B, Zou L, Qi L, et al. Allium Vegetables and Garlic Supplements Do Not Reduce Risk of Colorectal Cancer, Based on Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Volume 12, Issue 12, December 2014, Pages 1991-2001.

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