The World's Healthiest Foods
Mushrooms, Shiitake

Long a symbol of longevity in Asia because of their health-promoting properties, shiitake mushrooms have been used medicinally by the Chinese for more than 6,000 years. More recently, their rich, smoky flavor has endeared them to American taste buds and these exotic hearty mushrooms can now be found in supermarket shelves across the U.S. throughout the year.

Like other mushrooms, these specialty mushrooms are as mysteriously unique as they are delicious. While often thought of as a vegetable and prepared like one, mushrooms are actually a fungus, a special type of living organism that has no roots, leaves, flowers or seeds.

 


Health Benefits

A symbol of longevity in Asia because of their health-promoting properties, Shiitake mushrooms have been used medicinally by the Chinese for more than 6,000 years. Now that their rich, smoky flavor has endeared them to American tastebuds, these exotic hearty mushrooms can be found in supermarket shelves across the U.S.

Invigorate Your Immune System

Recent studies have traced shiitakes' legendary benefits to an active compound contained in these mushrooms called lentinan. Among lentinan's healing benefits is an ability to power up the immune system, strengthening its ability to fight infection and disease. Against influenza and other viruses, lentinan has been shown to be even more effective than prescription drugs; it even improves the immune status of individuals infected with HIV, the virus that can cause AIDS.

Cancer Protection

Lentinan, which is technically classified as a polysaccharide and referred to as a branched beta-glucan, has also been shown to have anti-cancer activity. When lentinan was given for human gastric cancer, reticular fibers developed in tumor sites. Reticular cells, which are spread throughout the body in various tissues, are immune cells that have the ability to ingest (phagocytose) bacteria, particulate matter, and worn out or cancerous cells. When lentinan was administered, not only was there a proliferation of reticular cells in gastric tumor sites, but many T lymphocytes (another type of immune defender) were drawn to these cancer sites with the result that the cancer cell nests were fragmented and destroyed.

A Hearty Mushroom That's Good for Your Heart

A large number of animal studies conducted over the last ten years have shown that another active component in shiitake mushrooms called eritadenine lowers cholesterol levels--and this amazing compound lowers cholesterol no matter what types of dietary fats the lab animals are given. Even when lab rats are given dietary protein rich in methionine (an amino acid researchers have found causes an increase in cholesterol formation), eritadenine still lowers plasma cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner. In other words, the more eritadenine given, the more cholesterol levels drop.

Description

Although numerous types of mushrooms provide wonderful tastes, textures and healthful properties, three mushroom superstars have been recently receiving widespread attention and, as a result, are increasingly available in the marketplace. These top three are shiitake, maitake and reishi mushrooms.

Like other mushrooms, these specialty mushrooms are as mysteriously unique as they are delicious. While often thought of as a vegetable and prepared like one, mushrooms are actually fungi, a special type of living organism that has no roots, leaves, flowers or seeds.

All three specialty mushroom varieties are similar in that they can add both a delicious culinary, as well as therapeutic, spark to many recipes, but each also features distinct characteristics.

-Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes): Fleshy brown, slightly convex caps that range in diameter from about two to four inches in diameter.

-Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum): Usually have an antler or rounded fan shape with the most popular type of reishi being red in color, although that is just one of the six colors in which they grow.

-Maitake (Grifola frondosa): Grow in a formation of clustered brownish fronds of fan shaped petals. Commonly known as “Hen of the Woods”.

History

Shiitake, reishi and maitake mushrooms have grown wild since prehistoric times. Their therapeutic value has been prized in Asian countries, where they originated, for thousands of years. They play a critical role in Asian medicinal traditions and were noted in some of the first books on herbal medicine written thousands of years ago. In the past few decades, these mushrooms have become more popular in the United States as a result of an expanding body of scientific research supporting their numerous health benefits. In addition to China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, these mushrooms are currently cultivated in a host of other countries including the United States.

How to Select and Store

How to Enjoy

For some of our favorite recipes, click Recipes.

Tips for Preparing Shiitake Mushrooms:

Mushrooms are very porous, so if they are exposed to too much water they will quickly absorb it and become soggy. Therefore, the best way to clean mushrooms without sacrificing their texture and taste is to clean them using minimal, if any, water. To do this, simply wipe them with a slightly damp paper towel or kitchen cloth. You could also use a mushroom brush, available at most kitchenware stores.

If the fresh mushrooms become dried out because of being stored for too long, soak them in water for thirty minutes.

A Few Quick Serving Ideas:

Shiitake mushrooms are traditionally added to miso soup.

Healthy sauté mushrooms with onions and garlic. Serve as a side dish or as a topping for chicken, beef, lamb or venison.

To give your vegetable stock an extra depth, add dried specialty mushrooms like shiitake.

For a quick and easy Asian pasta dish, healthy sauté shiitake mushrooms with snap peas and tofu. Season to taste and serve over buckwheat soba noodles (or your favorite type of pasta).

Safety

Shiitake Mushrooms and Purines

Shiitake mushrooms contain naturally-occurring substances called purines. Purines are commonly found in plants, animals, and humans. In some individuals who are susceptible to purine-related problems, excessive intake of these substances can cause health problems. Since purines can be broken down to form uric acid, excess accumulation of purines in the body can lead to excess accumulation of uric acid. The health condition called “gout” and the formation of kidney stones from uric acid are two examples of uric acid-related problems that can be related to excessive intake of purine-containing foods. For this reason, individuals with kidney problems or gout may want to limit or avoid intake of purine-containing foods such as shiitake mushrooms.

Nutritional Profile

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart

The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good or good source. Next to the nutrient name you will find the following information: the amount of the nutrient that is included in the noted serving of this food; the %Daily Value (DV) that that amount represents (similar to other information presented in the website, this DV is calculated for 25-50 year old healthy woman); the nutrient density rating; and, the food's World's Healthiest Foods Rating. Underneath the chart is a table that summarizes how the ratings were devised. For more detailed information on our Food and Recipe Rating System, please click here.

 

Mushrooms, Shiitake, Raw
8.00 oz-wt
87.23 calories
Nutrient Amount DV
(%)
Nutrient
Density
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
iron 3.59 mg 19.9 4.1 very good
vitamin C 5.98 mg 10.0 2.1 good
protein 4.98 g 10.0 2.1 good
dietary fiber 2.49 g 10.0 2.1 good
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
Rule
excellent DV>=75% OR Density>=7.6 AND DV>=10%
very good DV>=50% OR Density>=3.4 AND DV>=5%
good DV>=25% OR Density>=1.5 AND DV>=2.5%

References

  • Ensminger AH, Ensminger, ME, Kondale JE, Robson JRK. Foods & Nutriton Encyclopedia. Pegus Press, Clovis, California.
  • Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986.
  • Fortin, Francois, Editorial Director. The Visual Foods Encyclopedia. Macmillan, New York.
  • Fukushima M, Ohashi T, Fujiwara Y, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) fiber, shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fiber, and enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) fiber in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2001 Sep;226(8):758-65.
  • Gordon M, Bihari B, Goosby E, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of the immune modulator, lentinan, in HIV-positive patients: a phase I/II trial. J Med 1998;29(5-6):305-30.
  • Hayakawa M, Kuzuya F. [Studies on platelet aggregation and cortinellus shiitake]. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 1985 Mar;22(2):151-9.
  • Jong SC, Birmingham JM. Medicinal and therapeutic value of the shiitake mushroom. Adv Appl Microbiol 1993;39:153-84.
  • Kabir Y, Yamaguchi M, Kimura S. Effect of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on blood pressure and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1987 Oct;33(5):341-6.
  • Nanba H, Kuroda H. Antitumor mechanisms of orally administered shiitake fruit bodies. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1987 Jun;35(6):2459-64.
  • Nanba H, Mori K, Toyomasu T, Kuroda H. Antitumor action of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fruit bodies orally administered to mice. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1987 Jun;35(6):2453-8.
  • Ng ML, Yap AT. Inhibition of human colon carcinoma development by lentinan from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). J Altern Complement Med 2002 Oct;8(5):581-9.
  • Ogawa K, Wantanabe T, Katsube T, et al. Study on intratumor administration of lentinan--primary changes in cancerous tissues. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1994 Sep;21 (Article in Japanese; abstract in English).
  • Sugiyama K, Kumazawa A, Zhou H, Saeki S. Dietary methionine level affects linoleic acid metabolism through phosphatidylethanolamine N-methylation in rats. Lipids 1998 Mar;33(3):235-42.
  • Sugiyama K, Yamakawa A, Kawagishi H, Saeki S. Dietary eritadenine modifies plasma phosphatidylcholine molecular species profile in rats fed different types of fat. J Nutr 1997 Apr;127(4):593-9.
  • Sugiyama K, Yamakawa A, Saeki S. Correlation of suppressed linoleic acid metabolism w ith the hypocholesterolemic action of eritadenine in rats. Lipids 1997 Aug;32(8):859-66.
  • Suzuki M, Iwashiro M, Takatsuki F, et al. Reconstitution of anti-tumor effects of lentinan in nude mice: roles of delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction triggered by CD4 positive T cell clone in the infiltration of. Jpn J Cancer Res 1994 ASprt;85(4):409-17.
  • Takazawa H, Tajima F, Miyashita C. [An antifungal compound from "Shiitake" (Lentinus edodes)]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1982 May;102(5):489-91.
  • Takehara M, Mori K, Kuida K, Hanawa MA. Antitumor effect of virus-like particles from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Arch Virol 1981;68(3-4):297-301.
  • Takehara M, Toyomasu T, Mori K, Nakata M. Isolation and antiviral activities of the double-stranded RNA from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake). Kobe J Med Sci 1984 Aug;30(3-4):25-34.
  • Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press; 1988.

This page was updated on: 2005-05-06 21:00:44
© 2002 The George Mateljan Foundation